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Species Status*
 1.   Astacus astacus Native
 2.   Astacus leptodactylus Native
 3.   Austropotamobius pallipes Native
 4.   Austropotamobius torrentium Native
 5.   Orconectes limosus Introduced
 6.   Pacifastacus leniusculus Introduced
 7.   Procambarus clarkii Introduced

* Conservation status has not yet been determined.


Holdich, D.M. (2002). Present distribution of crayfish in Europe and some adjoining countries. In: Knowledge-based management of European native crayfish. Crayfish special Vol. 4, (eds C. Souty-Grosset & F. Grandjean). Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 367(4), 611-650.

Holdich, D. M., Ackefors, H., Gherardi, F., Rogers, W. D. & Skurdal, J. (1999). Alien crayfish in
Europe: some conclusions.  In: Crayfish in Europe as alien species - how to make the best of a
bad situation
, pp. 281-292. (Gherardi, F. & Holdich, D. M. eds). Crustacean Issues  11. Balkema,
Rotterdam. ISBN 90 5410 469.

  Last Updated:  11 July 2006
James W. Fetzner Jr.