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Northern Ireland Scotland Ireland France
Species Status*
 1.   Astacus astacus Native
 2.   Astacus leptodactylus Native1
 3.   Austropotamobius pallipes Native
 4.   Orconectes limosus Introduced
 5.   Pacifastacus leniusculus Introduced
 6.   Procambarus clarkii Introduced

* Conservation status has not yet been determined.
1 =European species, but introduced in recent times.


Holdich, D.M. (2002). Present distribution of crayfish in Europe and some adjoining countries.
In: Knowledge-based management of European native crayfish. Crayfish special Vol. 4,
(eds C. Souty-Grosset & F. Grandjean). Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture,
367(4), 611-650.

Holdich, D. M., Ackefors, H., Gherardi, F., Rogers, W. D. & Skurdal, J. (1999). Alien crayfish in
Europe: some conclusions.  In: Crayfish in Europe as alien species - how to make the best of a
bad situation
, pp. 281-292. (Gherardi, F. & Holdich, D. M. eds). Crustacean Issues  11. Balkema,
Rotterdam. ISBN 90 5410 469.

Last Updated:  09 September 2004
James W. Fetzner Jr.