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Species Status*
 1.   Astacus astacus Introduced ??
 2.   Pacifastacus leniusculus Introduced ??
 3.   Procambarus clarkii Introduced ??

* Conservation status has not yet been determined.
?? = indicates that an introduction has been made but its outcome in not known or is
         yet to be reported officially.


Holdich, D.M. (2002). Present distribution of crayfish in Europe and some adjoining countries. In: Knowledge-based management of European native crayfish. Crayfish special Vol. 4, (eds C. Souty-Grosset & F. Grandjean). Bulletin Français de la Pêche et de la Pisciculture, 367(4), 611-650.

Holdich, D. M., Ackefors, H., Gherardi, F., Rogers, W. D. & Skurdal, J. (1999). Alien crayfish in
Europe: some conclusions.  In: Crayfish in Europe as alien species - how to make the best of a
bad situation
, pp. 281-292. (Gherardi, F. & Holdich, D. M. eds). Crustacean Issues  11. Balkema,
Rotterdam. ISBN 90 5410 469.

Last Updated:  11 July 2006
James W. Fetzner Jr.