Adult crane flies of this species are highly polished, and black, yellow or red in color. They superficially resemble ichneumonid wasps than other crane flies. Antennal segments of male branched (three branches on each segment) and of female either branched or serrate. The female of this species has elongated acicular ovipositor. They frequent open, wet or mixed woodlands. The larvae live in decaying wood of recently dead deciduous hardwood trees, often in prostrate trunks that are fairly sound.
This species exhibits extreme polymorphism in body color and body size of both sexes. The following images are of the same scale to show the ranges in body size (16-28 mm) and the color variation within species. The wing colors also vary from smoky-black, brown, brownish-yellow, to transparent. The two mating pair images below show copulation between two color forms.
Adult flies of this species also vary in body color from black to reddish-yellow with dark markings. Wings also exhibit various patterns, either entirely darkened, or yellowish, with the entire apex beyond the cord strongly darkened. They differ from the previous species in that the male antennae branched with only two branches in each segment, and the female has a relatively short ovipositor. Adults are often found flying about in open woodlands. The larvae of this species also live in decaying wood.
Adult flies of this species are less variable in body color than the previous species. Wings are nearly hyaline, tinged with yellow in costal region with a large brown cloud between cord and wing-tips, not reaching the apex. Thorax is yellow in color with a wedge shaped median brown stripe. Adults are often found flying about in open woodlands. The larvae of this species also live in decaying wood.
Flies of the genus Dolichopeza have legs that are usually long and slender. Most of the species in our area are very similar in appearance and are most readily separated by characters of the external structures of male genitalia. Dr. George W. Byers (1961) published a detailed study of this group. The adults are among the local flies often found in small dancing groups in darkened shady places, as in shaded spots in woods, beneath culverts and bridges, in outhouses, in crannies and caverns of shaded cliffs, beneath overhanging boulders, in hollows in standing or fallen trees, in the shade of uprooted shallow tree roots, and other shady places. They hang from the roof of their haunts by either two or four legs, with the rest of the legs hanging pendant. The larvae are sluggish and of a rather dark green color. They feed on moss and are often found in moss cushions. One or two generations have been observed in our area.
In North America, Dolichopeza americana is the only species in its subgenus. They can be separated from all the other Dolichopeza species by having their wings with cell 1st M2 open, and by adult flies having brown legs except all the tarsal segments that are snowy white.
All the other species of Dolichopeza in our area belong to the subgenus Oropeza. Some of these species are so closely resemble one another that they can be distinguishable only by microscopic examination. There is some ecological separation of the species determined by the microhabitat. Darker colored species are usually present in deeply shaded environments, and those with lighter colored tend to be found in more open shade of forest and marsh vegetation. Dolichopeza carolus is the only local species in this subgenus that has snowy white tarsi; all the other species within subgenus Oropeza have dark brown, brown or yellowish tarsi.
Dolichopeza tridenticulata has a dusky brown color and are easily found in great numbers at their shaded daytime haunts often with other dark colored Dolichopeza species. They are often taken from exposed tree roots, overhanging banks, and places offering deep shade. This is one of the smaller species in the group with body sized of 7 - 12mm, and wings 8 – 13mm. There are two emergence peaks in our area in June and August. Previously known range is from Manitoba to Quebec and Maine, southward to Missouri and Georgia.
Other species of Dolichopeza (Oropeza) group: [^Top]
Both male and female adults of this species have greatly elongated abdomen (50-60 mm), somewhat resembling that of a dragonfly. It is one of the largest crane flies in local fauna. Adults of this species occur locally in July. The adult flies are found near rapidly flowing streams in cool, shaded woods. They usually hang from tree branches along wooded streams. They are very wary and difficult to catch, usually alighting in midst of brush and make it impossible to capture by net.
The larvae are aquatic, living in sand or gravel in the streambed. The semi-transparent larvae of this species and the larvae of Tipula abdominalis are probably the two largest crane fly larvae to be found in streams of
eastern North America.
includes about 475 recognized species worldwide, with a total of
40 species in the Nearctic Region (Oosterbroek 2005).
Nineteen species were documented to occur in
The adult flies are 10-16 mm in size. Body coloration of flies of this species is general yellow and conspicuously variegated by black, including three praescutal stripes; the outer pair curved lateral into an opaque black spot. The wing tips are darkened. This is a characteristic future for this species. This is a woodland species and is commonly found in the bottomland woods, and in the moist thickets along streams. Females were often observed ovipositing into wet soil in forest floor.
flies are 15-20 mm in size.
Flies of this species are yellow in thorax color with
polished mesonotum, and have lateral black dashes on dorsum of
Flies of both sexes have bicolored antennae with base yellow and
more than 16 segments.
This species occurs throughout the summer with two peak
emergence, in June.
They are common in bottomland forests and more mesic parts of
This is one of the first North American crane flies to be described. It is the most common and widespread species in the genus Nephrotoma in our area and the one most likely to be found in urban and suburban habitats. Species of Nephrotoma can be recognized by their short, oblique Rs vein, and by their highly polished body coloration. The adults of N. ferruginea are 12-16 mm in size and are rusty red with a row of black triangular spots on the dorsal side of the abdomen. They can easily be found in grasslands, lawns, and the edges of woods. Males can be found flying up and down around small bushes in search of females during the early morning and late afternoon. The larvae of this species inhabit earth or leaf mold and feed on decaying plant debris and grass roots. Two generations occur in Pennsylvania, one in May and the other in September.
flies are 12-17 mm in size.
Flies of this species are yellow to pale yellow in
thorax color, and have lateral black dashes on dorsum of
Males flies have very long (10-11 mm), bicolored
species occurs throughout the summer with two peaks of
emergence, in June and August.
They are common in bottomland forests and more mesic
parts of the
This is one of the North American Nephrotoma species in our area that has highly polished body coloration. The adults of N. pedunculata are 13-17 mm in size and are orange-yellow, heavily patterned with black. The head with a distinct dark triangular occipital brand located at posterior edge. The wings are uniformly subhyaline with yellow costal border and dark brown stigma. The basal five abdominal segments are yellow with conspicuous bands of black at posterior end. Their polished body coloration is similar to a few species of Tipula in the subgenus Nobilotipula, especially Tipula collaris and T. nobilis. The following two characters can separate them readily. First, the Rs in Nephrotoma is short, while it is relatively long in Nobilotipula. Also in females, species of Nephrotoma have a pointed ovipositor, while it is blunt in Nobilotipula. The images below illustrate the differences between these two groups.
Nephrotoma pedunculata can be found in the edges of woods. Females can be observed bouncing up and down laying eggs along trails in wooded areas, especially over slightly damp forest floors. Like most of the Nephrotoma, larvae of this species inhabit earth or leaf mold and feed on decaying plant debris and grass roots.
The adult flies are 10-12 mm in size. Flies of this species show strongly greenish coloration in life, and paling to yellow in preserved specimens. Thoracic stripes black and curved laterally into a velvety-black spot, abdomen often with black markings. A woodland species and males are frequently observed flying close to the forest floor in search of freshly emerged females.
Other related species of Nephrotoma: [^Top]
This distinctively large (26-34 mm), early spring species of crane fly occurs in late March through mid April in our area. Although it was originally described from two sites in South Carolina and Tennessee in 1940, there have been no subsequent literature records for this species. This despite large numbers of stream surveys conducted throughout Eastern North America in the last 30 years.
Our study discovered this species in 1986 in Powdermill Nature Reserve, Westmoreland County for the state record of Pennsylvania. The preliminary results of our survey indicated this species has a very limited distribution, unusual habitat requirements or both. This species has been collected mainly in the vicinity of non-polluted spring-fed headwater streams and does not occur in any of the acid-polluted streams. This unique requirement for its habitat shows great potential for this species to serve as reliable indicator for ecosystem health.
This species is the first large crane fly to occur in spring and probably serves as a steady food source for several of the small migratory songbirds such as Louisiana water thrushes along streams in its habitat. Carnegie Museum surveys have also taken additional specimens of this species from West Virginia.
The adults of this species reach 13-17 mm in size and have wings variously clouded and spotted with brown and gray. Antennae are bicolorous and elongated in males. This species is most numerous in midsummer and commonly found in wet woodlands. Larvae of this species occur in well-rotted logs, under the surface mosses or in the very decayed outer layers of fallen tree trunks, in saturated forest soil (Gelhaus, 1986).
This is primarily a spring boreal species and often was collected at lights. They were also commonly found in low herbaceous plants at edge of woods. Adult flies are pale yellow in color and their wings are patterned with pale clouds. Female ovipositor has relatively short and broad cerci. Adults reach 12-15 mm in length. Larvae stages are unknown.
Subgenus Lunatipula, with 12 documented species and another equal number of potential species, is one of the two large subgenera within genus Tipula in our area. Some of the characters for Lunatiipula are: Squama with a group of setae; Veins beyond cord often with trichia; tibial spur formula 1-2-2; claws usually with basal tooth; and male genitalia with tergite and sternite distinct.
Adults of Tipula apicalis are 12-16 mm in size and locally abundant in forest edges and also on herbaceous plants in grassy fields. One spring generation occurs in May and June in our area. Wing cells beyond cord of wing darkened, wing-apex narrowly but conspicuously darkened and this is the most distinct character for this species. Larvae of this species inhabit rich humid woodland soil with pieces of rotting wood. As most of larvae in the subgenus Lunatipula, this species has their dorsal spiracular lobes heavily sclerotized, and they also have golden-yellow macroscopic hairs on their dorsum.
Adults are 12-14 mm in size and locally abundant in forest edges and can be found on herbaceous plants in grassy fields. One spring generation occurs in May and June in our area. Mating pairs of fully matured males and newly emerged females were often observed in grassland during their peak flight season. Larvae of this species inhabit grassland and open fields. Crane flies of the bicornis group have their wings with cell 1st M2 very small, pentagonal, the upper face shorter than or subequal to the petiole of cell M1; ovipositor with short fleshy cerci; male genitalia enlarge, the tergite variously armed with fleshy lobes (Alexander 1942).
Adults are 16-22 mm in size and locally abundant on moist, north-facing hillsides, and also on herbaceous plants in grassy fields. One spring generation occurs in April through early May and is one of the early spring species in our area. Body color of mesonotum is gray or grayish, praescutum has three brown stripes, and pleura are light gray. Wings are lightly darkening in costal region or along vein Cu. Previously known range from Kansas to New York and South Carolina.
Adult males are 16-19 mm in size and females
are 15-17 mm in size. The
colors of two sexes in this species are strongly dimorphic.
Males have thoracic
dorsum yellowish, with three brown stripes; abdominal tergites
are yellow, interruptedly trivittate with brown; wings are
brownish subhyaline; antennae are long about 8-9 mm.
Females have wings reduced in size and brownish black in
color; abdominal tergites have bright yellow median vitta;
antennae are short about 5-6 mm.
This species is locally abundant in hardwood forests.
One spring generation mainly occurs in May.
This species is
previously known from
Adult males are 15-18 mm in size and female
are longer about 20-25 mm in size.
Wing cells beyond cord
are darkened, conspicuously variegated by whitish in redial
cells beyond the stigma.
Antennae are stout and uniformly dark in color; the bases
of flagellar segments slightly reddish.
Praescutal stripes on thorax are dark gray, narrowly
margined with brown.
Abdominal tergites are orange, trivittate with black.
Females have elongated abdomen that exposed beyond the
tips of the wings when at rest. One
generation occurs in April/May in our area.
Males were usually found in the morning, together with
Tipula dietziana flying
low over the damp leaf mold in search of freshly emerged
females. Females are
inactive, usually found walking on ground or resting on lower
vegetations. This species
has a wide distribution range previously known from
This medium-large species (16-22 mm) has a long flight period. It occurs in late June, peaks in mid-July and lasts well into early September. The adults are abundant in dry woodlands, hillside woods and bottomlands. It is the most conspicuous Tipula species throughout woodland habitats in our area during summer time. Like most species of the subgenus Lunatipula, larvae of this group are found in terrestrial habitats, usually under a thick layer of litter and moist leaf mold in woodland soil.
The adult of this species is a moderate size about 11-14 mm, yellowish brown species. Antennae of this species have the bases of the flagellar segments light yellow, and the remainder segments black. Larvae are found in forest soil and presumably feed on decaying leaves. This species was described from Kansas in 1918. Although recorded by Young (1978) also from Kansas, its distribution has not been expanded in the literature. The species was found in western Pennsylvania (Greene County) in 1994, an extension of range of nearly 900 miles.
This medium-large size (15-17) crane fly is a common element of the woodland crane fly fauna. Females usually found in damp thickets along creeks and moist grassy patches in bottomland woods. Males and females of this species are strongly dimorphic in color. Males are bright orange and wings are yellow basally and more clouded apically with small brown spots along costal margins. Females are much darker and wings are blackened, variegated by whitish before and at cord. Male genitalia is asymmetrical with right basistyle produced caudad as a prominent bispinous arm; left basistyle terminating in a small spine (see image below).
This large Tipula was usually found in damp thickets along the creek and moist, grassy patches in bottomland woods. They are also often collected at lights. The adult flies reach 21-25 mm in size. This species and the closely related species Tipula valida (22-24 mm) are slightly dimorphic in color; males are light yellow and females are grayish-yellow. This species differs from T. valida in the structures of male genitalia. Males of T. hirsuta have a median tuft of long yellow setae on the eighth sternite and short tergal horns. Males of T. valida have no long yellow setae on the eighth sternite and long tergal horns.
These two species are extremely similar in appearance. The cells beyond cord of their wings are darkened and variegated by whitish in radial cells beyond the stigma. Cells basad of cord are uniformly pale in color. Their antennal segments are bicolorous, with bases of segments darker than remainder. Male genitalia of Tipula mallochi has shorter tergal horns and the posterior lobe of inner dististyle broad, the apex are truncated.
Male genitalia of Tipula submaculata has long and slender tergal horns and the posterior lobe of inner dististyle produced into a slender point and with apex bifid. The females of these two species are difficult to separate when not associated with males.
Tipula (Lunatipula) monticola Alexander [^Top]
Adults are 17-26 mm in size and locally abundant in the low, damp parts of the mixed forests and bottomland forests, rare from drier and open parts of hillside woods. Most often found on upper leaves of low shrubs. One generation occurs in June and through summer months in our area. Body color of mesonotum is brownish or yellow, pleura has thin white pruinosity, praescutum is opaque with distinct ornage-brown stripes. Antennal segments beyond the first two segments are bicolored.
Tipula (Lunatipula) morrisoni Alexander
Adults are 15-16 mm in size and are yellow in color with bicolorous antennae. This species is locally abundant in open woods and dries hill-side woods; and are usually found among lower leaves of trees. One spring generation occurs in May and June in our area. This species and Tipula bicornis belong to the bicornis group that their wings have a small 1st cell and are pentagonal in shape. The male hypogygium in this group is usually enlarged and female ovipositor has small fleshy cerci.
This species was described from
Adult flies of this species are 8.5-9.2 mm in length and have three dull brown, longitudinal stripes on prescutum. Wings are tinged with yellowish brown, paler area from inner edge of stigma to inner end of cell 1st M2. Ovipositors of female short, soft and truncated apically. Because of having a short, outwardly pointed cell 1st M2 in the wings and short, fleshy cerci in the female, Tipula rossmani would be identified as belonging to what Alexander called “the bicornis group” of subgenus Lunatipula (Byers, 2003).
Adults are 22-24 mm in size and sexes are dimorphic in color. Males have yellow praescutum with four entire brownish stripes; females are yellowish gray, with four darker strips. Males have large hypopygium with the lateral tergal horns long and prominent. There is no brush of long yellow setae on the eighth sternite. This species differs from the closed related T. hirsute in the structures of male genitalia. Males of T. hirsuta have a median tuft of long yellow setae on the eighth sternite and short tergal horns. Females of T. valida have their wings with cells basad of cord strongly variegated by whitish areas and shorter ovipositors. Larvae of both species are found in terrestrial habitats, usually under a thick layer of litter and moist leaf mold in woodland soil.
The largest crane fly in the state of Pennsylvania, the adult of this species has a brownish gray thorax with a velvety black area on the dorsal side. The abdomen is orange with a black line on the side, and the posterior end of the abdomen is black. The wings are semitransparent with several brown areas along the front edge. The females reach about 40 mm in size, while the males are slightly smaller. The larvae of this species are aquatic and among the largest and most common aquatic invertebrates in streams of wooded areas, and are sought out as bait for fish. Larvae feed on decomposing leaves, thus playing an important role of breaking down organic matter in the water. Two generations occur, more numerous in late summer than in spring.
General coloration of this species is polished yellow and black, almost as in Nephrotoma. Adults (10-14 mm) are on the wing during late April and May, some persisting into June. This species may be found in its habitat together with its related species Tipula (Nobilotipula) nobilis (Loew). Larvae of both species have been found beneath saturated moss.
General coloration of this species is also polished yellow and black. Adults are 12-14 mm in size. This specie is different from the above species by having their praescutal stripes polished black; pleura light yellow and the basal tergite of their first abdominal segment not pruinose. There is one generation occurs in our area mainly in June. Larvae are semi-aquatic usually are found in damp soil along streams and creeks in woods.
The adult of Tipula (Platytipula) huggisi is large (17-34 mm), handsome, and has yellowish wings with black streaks. It co-occurs with and can be confused with a commoner related species, Tipula (Platytipula) ultima. The most easily observed character for distinguishing male of these two species is in T. hugginsi, male ninth tergite with broadly emarginated with dentate margin only dorsally, while in T. ultima the dentate margin dorsally and continuing posteriorly. Larvae were collected from moss mats and leaf packs in intermittent streams where they feed on decaying leaves. Larvae diapause along the edge of the creek when the creek dries in the summer, and adults emerge in fall.
This species is an autumnal species (16-19 mm), locally occurred in late September and October, found especially in lawn, grassy areas, and humid areas along ponds, marshes, and streams. Head and thorax are gray, abdomen chiefly brownish-yellow, and the abdominal tergite with a median brown stripe. Wings tinged with brown and with costal margin darken.
larvae of this species are terrestrial root feeders and have
been recorded living in soil in gardens, pastures, meadows
or golf courses, usually beneath turf and areas where there
are build-up of thatch. They feed on roots of grasses,
seedlings and crops, thus causing commercial losses and are
considered to be turf and pasture pests when large number is
This largely midwest species (Kansas, Missouri, Illinois, Ohio, Tennessee) has spread all the way to the east coast (New Jersey, Maryland) in the last two decades. This species has not previously been recorded from Pennsylvania; it represents a state record and is now widespread in Pennsylvania. Emergences of large number of adult flies of this species have been observed in last few years from Adams, York, Lancaster, Chester, Bucks, Berks, Lehigh, and Northampton Counties.
The adult flies of this species are 15-17 mm in size and are closest to Tipula (Platytipula) ultima, in appearance. The two species are most readily separated by the details of structures of the male genitalia. In this species the ninth tergite has its lateral lobes narrowly blackened and microscopically toothed, with the outermost teeth largest. This species was found at two localities in Pennsylvania (Allegheny, Philadelphia) and was uncommon although the related species, T. ultima, was usually abundant in the same habitats.
This large species (18-25mm) occurs widely in eastern United State and Canada. Wings of this species strongly suffused with yellow or brownish-yellow sparsely patterned with brown. Adults of this species emerge after the late summer rains and are common in September and early October. It is one of the most conspicuous autumnal crane flies. Adults occur locally in herbaceous growth in lowland woods and edges of woods, particularly in the vicinity of streams.
Adult flies in the subgenus Pterelachisus are characterized by their heavily patterned wings with variously clouded and spotted with brown or gray. They also have naked squama, 1-2-2 spur formula and claws with basal tooth. Larvae of this group live beneath the bark of much decayed trunks or under the layers of moss that often cover fallen trees. This species is about 14-20 mm in body size, has distinct bicolor antennae. Three other closely related species Tipula (Pterelachisus) margarita Alexander, Tipula (Pterelachisus) penobscot Alexander, and Tipula (Pterelachisus) trivittata Say share the woodland habitats with this species. Details to separate these three species rest on the structures of male genitalia. Male hypogygium of this species has a V-shaped notch on the ninth tergite.
Adult flies of this species are slightly smaller than other species in this group, they are about 13-20 mm in size. Their bodies have the deepest dark vitta especially on the female abdominal segments. Male hypogygium has a narrow U-shaped notch. Hair-pencils of eighth sternite are long, and curved.
General coloration of this species is brownish gray, the praescutal stripes are relatively indistinct and the basal parts of the wings are less patterened. The ninth tergite of male hypopygium has shallow U-shaped notch with three small teeth on the inner edge. The basistyle of male hypogygium develops into an acute spine. One generation occurs in June/July in our area.
The adult of this species is another large (15-22 mm) common woodland species in our area. Adults fly during a large part of the season from May through August. Their wings are clouded with brown and gray spots. The dorsal part of the abdomen has three more or less distinct brown stripes.
This species is chiefly a spring crane fly of about 10-14 mm in size and occurs in May and June in our area. They are commonly found on moss-covered tree trunks along streams. Their related species Tipula (Savtshenkia) fragilis Loew is an autumnal species found mainly in September and October.
Subgenus Schummelia is a small group of crane fly with three species in our area. They adult are about 11-13 mm in size and with patterned wings. Adult flies are mostly found resting on moss covered tree bark in woodlands, and larvae are found in damp leaf mold in seepage areas in woodlands.
Crane flies belonging to the subgenus Tipula are mainly found in the Old World. In recent years two wide spread European species of this group, Tipula paludosa, the so-called common European crane fly, and Tipula oleracea, the marsh crane fly have found their way into the New World presumably through various agricultural import practices. Both species have become established across Canada and spread considerably in the Pacific Northwest including British Columbia, Oregon, Washington and part of northern California. There are also recently confirmed sightings of Tipula oleracea in Michigan (Gelhaus 2005) and both species in New York (Lang 2005). Tipula oleracea has also become established in the Andes of Ecuador (Young 2000). Although these two species have not yet been recorded in Pennsylvania, it is likely that they will eventually reach Pennsylvania considering the recent sighting of them in New York and Michigan.
Larvae of Tipula (Tipula), commonly known as leatherjackets, are terrestrial root feeders and have been recorded living in soil in gardens, pastures, or meadows, usually beneath turf. They feed on roots of grasses, seedlings and crops, thus causing commercial losses and both species are considered to be turf and pasture pests.
The adult crane flies of both species are somewhat similar in appearance to the native species of Tipula (Platytipula) paterifera. They all have a slender, yellowish body of 16-25mm in length, and large grayish wings with a brown front margin. Adults of all these three species occur in the fall from late August to mid October, although T. oleracea also has a spring appearance in May. Tipula paterifera however has a smaller and narrower outer dististyle compared to T. paludosa and T. oleracea. These two introduced crane flies are extremely similar species. A character for distinguishing the two species apart is the separation of the compound eyes on the ventral surface (underside) of the head. The space between the eyes of T. oleracea is narrow, and that of T. paludosa is much wider (LaGasa, 1999). See below images which were provided by Stephen Luk.
Four species in this group were found in our area. The distinct character to distinguish Trichotipula from all the other Tipula species is their outer cells of wings have macrotrichia. Adult of this species are about 12-14 mm in body length and are dull brown and yellow in body color. The antennae are uniformly darkened except the basal two segments are dull yellow. Locally a late summer and full species occur in late July to September.
Tipula orogezoides are about 13-16 mm in body length and dull gray to yellowish gray in body color. This species has an extensive trichiation in their wings, the macrotrichia are found in all apical cells from R1 to M4. Larvae of this subgenus are often found in moderate dry soil slightly below the soil surface in hillside woods.
Tipula stonei are about 12-16 mm in body length and have a bright polished yellow body coloration. The macrotrichia on their wing cells are relatively restricted, confined to cells R3 to 2nd M2. Adults were often found resting on algae-covered tree trunks near hillside seepage areas or on leaves of lower branches of trees. The fourth species of this group in our area is T. unimaculata.
This species was commonly collected in the ecotone between grassy fields and edges of woods, the same habitat as T. bicornis. Adults are obscure yellow in color and about 19-27 mm in size. Larvae can be found in moist soil near the surface at the edge of woods or in nearby grassy areas. This species was previously reported from Michigan, westward to Iowa, and Missouri. Recently it has been reported from Mississippi (Amite County, 12 April 2007 Gayle and Jeanell Strickland). Other related species found in our areas are T. flavoumbrosa and T. perlongipes. The structural differences in submedian teeth of the eighth sternum are used to separate these three related species apart.
This species is most readily told by the structure of male genitalia and the unusually length of the abdomen in females (30-38 mm). The female of this species is among one of the longest crane flies in our area. Males are shorter in body size about 16-19 mm in length. The adults have wings variegated with brown, gray and white. An easily confused, but unrelated large species Tipula abdominalis has velvety black stripes on the dorsal and lateral sides of its thorax. Such character is absent in Tipula longiventris. The species of this group (Vestiplex) are chiefly Northern and Arctic in distribution; in North America they are characteristic of mountainous or northern regions. Locally adults were found in woodlands and larvae were found in damp soil beneath layer of leaf mold.
The adult crane flies of the subgenus Yamatotipula can be separated from most of the other subgenera of Tipula by having the tergite and sternite of 9th abdominal segment fused into a continuous ring in males. The median region of this tergite produced posterior into a simple or bifid depressed lobe with small-blackened spines. Most of the species also have their wings with dark longitudinal stripes. Tipula aprilina belongs to the group that has unmarked wings except for the stigma area. They are about 9-13 mm in size and have uniformly blackened antennae and gray body color. The larvae of this species live in saturated earth at the margins of streams or ponds.
Adult flies of this species reach 18 – 25 mm in body length. They are the largest species of Yamatotipula group that have their wings striped longitudinally with brown and white. Their flagellar segments of antennae are yellow with darkened bases, and are shorter than their thorax. The abdominal segments have conspicuous brown sublateral stripes on tergites. Male hypopygium has very broad median lobe on the ninth tergite.
The adult crane flies of this species are medium to large in size (13-18 mm). Their wings are longitudinally striped with brown and whitish patterns and with a dark seam on veins Cu and m-cu. There are six species in this group in our area and they often are found in grassy areas along streams. Larvae are aquatic and live in debris or saturated earth along streams.
Other striped wing species similar to Tipula (Yamatotipula) furca: [^Top]
Adult flies of this species have clear wings except a dark brown costal border. They are about 12-15 mm in body length, and a late summer to fall species. Adult often are found in grassy area along woodland edges.
Adults of this species and some other related species have their wings unmarked except for the stigmal darkening and a dark yellow costal border. They are larger in size (14-18 mm) compared to Tipula aprilina and Tipula sayi. Their bodies are yellowish instead of gray in color, and usually with reddish brown markings bordered by dark brown on the abdomen dorsal segments. The larval stages are spent in saturated earth around water edges. The other two very similar species are Tipula cayuga and Tipula jacobus.
Adult flies of this species have their wings with central portion of disk conspicuously brightened, and have strongly bicolor antennae. They are about 18-22 mm in body length. This species are fairly common in grass-sedge marshes, open swamp woods, and grassy margins of sluggish streams in floodplain woods. Larvae found in wet soil along streams.
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Photos by Chen Young, unless otherwise stated.
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