There is only one species of this genus found in our area. The adults are small (6-7 mm) sized crane flies with polished yellow color. Abdominal segments are yellow and each segment with a blackened subterminal ring. Their antennae are elongated and bicolored in males. The adults are not uncommon in shaded open woods and also common in grassy areas or on lower vegetations. The larval stages occur in saturated, decaying wood.
Adult flies of this species are about 6-9 mm in size. They are brownish-yellow in color and with a distinct brown line in the thoracic pleura. Their wings are brownish-yellow and unmarked except for the slightly darker stigma. The adult flies rest with the wing outspread. The larval stages are found in decaying wood. One generation occurs from May through early July in our area.
Species of the
genus Chionea are the only nearly wingless crane flies in
In their natural habitat, species of Chionea may be found together with other winter wingless insects such as snow scorpionflies Boreus specis (Mecoptera: Boreidae), and stoneflies (Plecoptera: Capniinae), but can be easily distinguished from these two groups by their distinct halteres and shorter antennae (see below images for all three groups for comparison).
See Byers 1983 paper for further detailed information on morphology, natural history, distributions, identification keys, literatures of this genus in North America.
The adult “snow crane flies” occur in the winter months. They are wingless in both sexes and can be seen most frequently after a fresh fall of snow crawling sluggishly on the surface at temperatures as low as –10 degree C. The small (5-8 mm), spider-like adults are yellowish-brown in color, and their antennae have 12 segments. The natural history of this species is still largely a mystery, and some observers have suggested an association with nests of small mammals such as mice and chipmunks. Detailed studies on this genus can be found in Dr. George W. Byers’ paper of 1983.
This species has a northern and eastern distribution. Their bodies (3-6 mm in males and 4-8 mm in females) are of dull reddish brown in color and their antennae have 6-7 segments. The size variation in this species is noticeable. Some species of Chionea valga may be twice as long as others of the same sex taken on the same day in the same habitats; but dimensions of the genital segments vary much less than those of body and legs (Byers, 1983).
the most widely
distributed species in the genus, ranging from coastal Labrador
westward to central
Byers also mentioned in his 1983 paper that this species has a broad range of habitat. Roughly from north to south these are: arctic tundra in coastal Labrador; subarctic spruce forest and more southern subarctic spruce-fir forest extending across much of southern Canada; white pine, jack pine and other evergreens in the northern Great Lakes region; and mixed hardwood forest of beech, maple, hemlock, birch, from the upper Mississippi River eastward across Wisconsin, Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania and much of New England and extending southward along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Elsewhere the species penetrates to a limit extent the oak-hickory forest and the Appalachian hardwood forest. The range in general has fairly deep and persistent snow cover form November through March.
The adult of this species is 8-12 mm in size and occur mainly in woodlands during late summer and fall. The adults are orange-yellow in color and have brown crossbands on the abdomen. The wings are transparent with brown dots along the cross veins. The adults are often found walking on leaves, with the body elevated and parallel to the upper leaf surface and the wings folded flat over the back. They are common in woods in late fall when few other insects are similarly active. As a result, they may be important food for fall migratory songbirds. Their larvae inhabit relatively dry soil in woodlands.
This species is one of the most common and widely distributed of the local species of the genus. It varies very greatly in size but only a single species seems to be involved. They are about 6-10 mm in size and are frequently found on the vertical faces of shaded cliffs and rock exposures in ravines and gorges. Their wings have heavy spotted brownish gray cloud pattern along costal margin and fork of outer cells. The larvae live on algal growth. The related species Dactylolabis cubitalis are dark brown in color and have unmarked, strong brownish-yellow wings.
Genus Dicranoptycha Osten Sacken
Dicranoptycha elsa is basic grayish brown in color, it can be easily recognized by lack of the dark brown seam along the Cu vein. This species has been collected from New York westward to eastern Kansas, and southward along the Appalachian Mountains to northeastern Georgia. The recent collection indicates its range in Mississippi (Amite County, 12 April 2007 Gayle and Jeanell Strickland).
Dicranoptycha germana have strong reddish-brown wings and are common in dry oak-maple mixed woodlands. This species shows striking variation in body color, from dark reddish brown to light brownish-yellow. The adult flies have a more hairy appearance than any other species of Dicranoptycha. They have been recorded from Quebec westward to northern Minnesota and southward to South Carolina. This is so far as known the only species of this genus inhabits the Canadian life-zone. The adults have a long flight period from mid-June through October, with the peak in July.
is basic reddish yellow in color.
They can be easily recognized by their abdominal
coloration, which has transverse blackened bands near
mid-length from sterna of segments three to seven.
The male has branching aedegal processes.
This species has a southern distribution with records
Other related species of Dicranoptycha: [^Top]
The adults of this genus are distinct crane flies with an exceedingly elongated rostrum that is nearly as long as the entire body. There is only one species of this genus in our area. The adult flies are about 8-11 mm in body length, and about 16-19 mm including the rostrum. Adults have yellow abdomen and each segment with distinct dark subterminal ring. Their wings are brownish-yellow with conspicuous stigma. Adult flies are found in open woodlands usually hanging from leaves on low branches of trees. The larval stages are found in decaying wood.
This is one of the local striking and beautiful species of medium-sized (9-12 mm) crane flies. It is common in the latter half of May and early June, and generally found in moist woodlands. Adults usually found on forest litter or low shrubs, less than two feet above ground. Adult males also form small dancing swarms at dusk in shaded places. Larvae of this genus are usually found in decaying wood.
This is the only other species of Epiphragma found in the same habitats as the previous species. The two species can be distinguished by their wing patterns. Epiphragma fasciapenne has wings with pale brown cross bands that are narrowly margined with darker brown, and with a brown ring at the tip of each femur. Epiphragma solatrix has wings with an irregular pattern of brown and tawny color, and with a brown ring before tip of each femur. It has two generations per year and individual flies of the summer/fall generation have a smaller body size than those of the spring generation.
Adults of this species are small-sized 4-5 mm pale green crane flies with large black eyes. They are often found on low vegetation near water edges. The larval stages live in moist earth. About 8 species of this pale green crane flies belong to this group in our area. They can be separated only based on the variations of their genitalia.
These are small-sized (4-5 mm) brown crane flies. Adults are brownish yellow in color with dark brown halteres. The pleura of thorax has a dark brown longitudinal stripe. This species has a long flight period probably with two generations starting in April and lasting through the month of September.
Other related species of Erioptera (Erioptera): [^Top]
Adults of this species are small (5-6 mm) gray crane flies. The abdominal segments are dark brown, each segment ringed posterior with pale color. Their wings have a heavy dark brown pattern, arranged along costal areas, with smaller spots at the ends of longitudinal veins and on cross veins. Adults are found along all watercourses, either from shaded banks or from the base and roots of large trees by streams. This species also forms swarms.
These are small (5-6 mm) sized brown crane flies. Their wings have two distinct broad brown cross bands. The small band does not reach the margin of the costal vein, while the larger one reaches the border. The related species Erioptera graphica have their wings with the dark pattern broken into small spots and narrow brown seams along cords.
This is one of the small crane flies (3-4 mm in length). Body is brownish yellow with two conspicuously brown stripes on the pleura. Three species occur in the northeast. Erioptera parva is the smallest species with male of 2.5 mm in size, and their wings have no white spots but with small darker spots on the veins and at margins of veins. Erioptera needhami generally is similar to Erioptera caliptera in appearance, except they have fewer white spots on their wings and their femora with a single brown subterminal ring instead of two as in E. caliptera. They are abundant where soil is wet or muddy during most of the year, in bottomland forests, swamp woods, and grassy margins of streams. The larval stages of these species are spent in damp earth.
generally is similar to Erioptera caliptera in
appearance, except they are slightly smaller and have fewer
white spots on their wings and their femora with only a single
brown subterminal ring instead of two as in E. caliptera.
They are abundant where soil is wet or muddy during most
of the year, in bottomland forests, swamp woods, and grassy
margins of streams. The larval stages of these species are spent
in damp earth. This
species has been reported from
Erioptera (Mesocyphona) parva Osten Sacken [^Top]
This species has the smallest body size about 2.5 mm in its group. The main difference among the three species in this group is Erioptera parva has small darker spots on the cord and veins on their wings. Their legs are yellow and the femora have a narrow brown subterminal ring. Previously reported from Kansas to Michigan, Connecticut, south ward to Florida and was recently recorded from
Adults of this small (6-7 mm) gray crane fly are the first species to appear in the spring, when most vegetation has not yet started growing. They are common and abundant in the spring in nearly all wooded habitats and open grasslands. The fall generation is less conspicuous. The larval stages are found in saturated earth along water edges. There is only one species in this genus found in North America. This species is wide spread throughout North America, as far south as the mountains of Central America.
Steve Taylor (Illinois Natural History Survey) took the following two photos in the city of Urbana at Champaign County, Illinois. These images illustrate the Postcopulatory Mate Guarding Behavior that is common among crane flies in the subfamily Limoniinae. This behavior is observed general among species whose females oviposit in wet mud or near flowing and percolating water where coupling pairs are often observed in numbers. After mating, the female starts oviposition while the male stays astride more or less parallel with the female. In this manner, the male keeps frequent, close contact with the female, and will push or drive away any rival. By defending his mate from intruding rivals, the guarding male may have the last-male advantage and also prolong the female ovipositing period. This mate guarding behavior has also been observed in Limonia communis, and described in Limonia simulans, Antocha saxicola and Dactylolabis montana (Adler and Adler 1991).
This species has not been collected in PA and is listed here due to its extremely resemblance to the following species. They are about 6-8 mm in size and black in color. The characters used to separate these two species apart are the halteres of this species is black throughout, and the apical cells of their wings have hairs (see the attached wing image). These two species used to classified under the same genus Gnophomyia, they are now in separate genera. This species has a more southern distribution know from Indiana, Illinois to Florida and Mississippi.
The adults of this species are black with strongly darkened wings. They are about 6-8 mm in size and have distinct yellow color knobs of halteres. They occur in bottomland woods and wet thickets on herbage among fallen, decaying trees. The larvae are found beneath the bark of decaying deciduous trees.
This is the most abundant species of its genus; common and generally distributed in bottomland woods, ravines and mixed hardwood forests. They are small crane flies of 5-6 mm in size. Body of this species is brown to grayish-brown, variegated with fulphur-yellow to pale yellow. Abdominal segments are yellow, with large dark brown central areas. The larval stages live in wet soil.
The adults of this species are common in open marshy areas, and are often found resting on low vegetation. Adults are about 7-10 mm in size with dusky color on wing tips and dark brown stigma on wings. Their legs are pale yellow with tips of femora and tibiae narrowly blackened. The abdominal segments are dark brown, ringed posterior with yellow. The larvae stages are found in organic rich, saturated soil in marshy areas.
Species of the genus Hexatoma have reduction in number of antennal segments to less than 12 segments, and also males of several species have a tremendous elongation in their antennae. The adult flies of this genus are among the most rapid-flying crane flies and often form large swarms near streams and rivers. Their larvae live in water or saturated soil and are carnivorous. The larvae migrate to sandy bank of streams when they are ready to pupate.
Hexatoma brachycera are about 15 (male) -28 (female) mm in body size and both females and males have antennae of about 5 mm in length. Antennae have basal segments obscure yellow, flagellum black. Femora of legs are yellow to brownish yellow; the tips of femora are narrowly blackened.
Hexatoma brevioricornis are about 7 -10 mm in size and can be identified by their snowy white tarsi in all legs. The six-segmented antennae are about 3.5 mm and shorter than one-half the length of the body in both sexes. The adults are usually found standing on leaves of taller shrubs, with wings folded over the back and an elevated stance.
Hexatoma spinosa are about 16 (male) – 28 (female) mm in body size and the males are characterized by having antennae of about 28 mm in size and are approximately three times the length of the body. The males often form large mating swarm near the margins of streams.
Other related species of Hexatoma: [^Top]
This species and Limnophila (Dicranophragma) fuscovaria are the only two species in this subgenus that found in our area. The adult flies have wings with an abundant dotted and spotted brown pattern, including about five major areas along the costal field. The adult flies are about 5-7 mm in size and are usually found in rank herbage in swampy or boggy woods. The adults rest with their wings folded over the back and with the body tilted at a strong angle. The larvae are spent in organic-rich, saturated mud. Males of L. fuscovaria have wings broader than that of L. angustula.
Two very large (23-35 mm) species of Limnophila fall in the present subgenus Eutonia. Both are by far the largest and most conspicuous of all local members of the genus. The wings of alleni are brown yellow in color and are heavily patterned with dark brown dots along the costal margins. The wings of marchandi are transparent in color and are patterned with dark brown dots along costal margins. Adult flies of both species are found in low boggy woodlands and in shaded ravines in May and June in our area. The larvae can be found in organic mud along streams.
The main characters of this subgenus Lasiomastix is the presence of macrotrichia in the outer cells of the wings. The adult flies of this species have hairs in the outer cells of their wings. Their body color is polished black, and their wings have a heavy brown cross-banded pattern. The males have very elongated antennae, almost as long as their body. The antennae are covered with long erect setae. Antennae of female are much shorter than in male. The adults are about 8-11 mm in size and males have antennae about 10 mm. The adult flies are found in grassy edges of streams in bottomland woods. The larvae spent their live in mud or rich organic earth. This species can be readily told from its related species Limnophila tenuicornis by its patterned wings, which is absent in L. tenuicornis.
Limnophila (Lasiomastix) tenuicornis Osten Sacken [^Top]
The general color of this species is grayish brown and their wings are unmarked. They are about 7-9 mm in size and their antennae are about one third of their body length. A spring species in our area taken in a variety of moist habitats in June.
Limnophila (Limnophila) albipes Leonard [^Top]
This is a smaller sized (5-6 mm) fly in this genus. The body color of this species is light brown without pruinose. Antennae of male are elongate approximately one half as long as the body, of female are shorter. Femora are yellow, the tips are weakly darkened. The main distinct character of this species is the tarsi of their hind legs are snowy-white. A summer species collected in July in our area.
General coloration of this species is brownish black. Their legs are obscure yellow with the femoral tips broadly brownish black. Their wings are brownish yellow with a darker brown pattern along cord and Cu1. The adult flies are found commonly in grassy margins of sluggish streams in floodplain woods and in shaded vegetation near small streams or in open woods. The immature stages are unknown. This species is commonly found in the same habitat with two other related species L. munda and L. walleyi. It differs from both L. munda (7-9 mm) and L. walleyi (7-8 mm) at first sight by its larger size (9-14 mm). Details to separate these three species rely on the variations of male genitalia.
A common stream species generally distributed in wet, well-shaded spots along streams and in wet, wooded ravines. This species usually was found in shaded habitats where Dolichopeza was also common. Adult flies of this species reach 7-8 mm in length. General coloration of the body is dark brown; their wings have pale brown clouds in basal cells and along cord. The femora of their legs are brown with broadly yellow tips.
Limonia (Dicranomyia) fusca Meigen [^Top]
This medium-sized species is about 6-6.5 mm in size and brownish in color. It can be separated from all the other species of Limonia by having numerous macrotrichia in all cells beyond cord in their wings. This species is mainly a summer species and is commonly collected near streams and in open valleys from June to September. Previously recorded from Newfoundland to Michigan, south to Georgia; also found in Europe.
Limonia (Dicranomyia) liberta (Osten Sacken) [^Top]
This grayish, medium-sized species is probably the most frequently collected species in the genus Limonia. The adults of this species are found common in vernal seepage in bottomland woods and in the mesic thicket along the edges of streams. It also forms swarms before sunset about 5 feet about ground on top of small bushes. Adult flies reach 6-7 mm in size and their wings with cord and outer end of cell 1st M2 narrowly seamed with brown. Previously recorded from Newfound west to Manitoba, south to Oklahoma and Florida.
Other related species of Limonia (Dicranomyia): [^Top]
A widely distributed species previously known from British Columbia to Newfoundland, southward to Tennessee, and also found in Eurasia, south to New Guinea. Body size 8-11 mm, general coloration polished yellow or greenish yellow. Wings yellow with a supernumerary cross vein in cell 1st A, connecting the two Anal veins (see image below). Series of eye-like brown markings situated along costal margin. Femora with a subterminal black ring, and apex clear yellow. Adults commonly found on moss-covered bases of trees in woodlands. Larvae found beneath bark of decaying wood.
The small (10-12 mm) adults of this species are characterized by elongate mouthparts used for taking nectar from flowers. They display an up-and-down bobbing motion on the surface of rocks or leaves. This bobbing is especially noticeable immediately after the fly has landed or when it has been disturbed. The larvae spend their lives in gelatinous tubes constructed on rocks covered with algal growth, where the surface is constantly wet along streams or vertical cliffs. The larvae feed mainly on algae.
Their wings characterize adult flies of this species. The wings are heavily patterned with dark brown, including a series of four or five large costal areas. The tips of their tibia segments are conspicuously darkened, and of front tibiae are slightly swollen. The adult flies are about 10 – 12 mm in size and are often observed on flowers where they feed on nectar. The immature are found associated with wet rock surface covered with algal growth.
Other related species of
Limonia (Limonia) indigena (Osten Sacken) [^Top]
Species in the subgenus Limonia have their wings with Sc long, Sc1 ending beyond midlength of Rs, and R1+2 longer than R2 in North American species. This species is about 9-12 mm in size and their wings have a transverse broken crossband before cord. Their legs have two dark rings, the basal ones are paler in color. The mesonotum are yellow and the praescutum has four dark brown stripes; pleura yellow with a complete transverse dark brown stripe. Abdominal tergites are yellow, the posterior borders broadly brownish black. Two generations in our area in May/June and August/September and are often found in lower vegetation in bottom woodlands.
Limonia (Limonia) maculicosta (Coquillett) [^Top]
Adults of this species are about 11-12 mm in size. Their wings are whitish subhyaline with very distinct seams along cord and dark washes in bases of anal cells and a cloud at tip of R1+2. The legs are brown, the femoral tips are distinctly yellow. Abdominal tergites brown, based of individual segments yellow. This is a rather widespread species with distribution from Vermont northwestward to Alaska, south to California and Virginia, but only one specimen was collected at light in July in the survey.
Adults of this species are large crane flies (15-19mm) among the pattern winged species. Apex of wings very obtuse, all wing cells beautifully clouded and marbled medially with gray and brown. Adults found mostly on tree trunks, and commonly attracted to sugar baits brushed on tree trunks. Only one generation in later August and September in Pennsylvania.
Other related species of Limonia (Limonia): [^Top]
The adult of this species is about 10-16 mm in size. Limonia is one of the genera that the adults of many species exhibit a tremendous range in body size within species. Species in the subgenus Metalimnobia are resemble to those of the subgenus Limonia morphologically except on their wings the R1+2 and R2 are subequal in length. The wings of this species are patterned with brown spots and dots confined to the vicinity of veins. Leg color is chiefly yellow, the femora banded with two brown rings. The adults are usually found on the forest floor or on the shady side of tree trunks with wings folded and legs outspread. Larvae live in decaying wood and in fungi.
Limonia (Metalimnobia) fallax (Johnson) [^Top]
Adult flies of this species are 7-9 mm in size and their wings have small dots (range from 3 to 12) in a linear series in cell R. Legs are chiefly yellow, the femora banded with two dark brown rings, one closed to the tips. It is a late spring early summer species in our area. The immature have been reported wrapped in silken cases covered with earthy matter removed from the soil near a brook (Alexander, 1919).
Limonia (Metalimnobia) hudsonica (Osten Sacken) [^Top]
Flies of this species share the same habitats with many other species in this genus. Adult flies are about 11-12 mm in size. The wings have a large dark spot in cell R at mid-distance between the arcular area and the mark at origin of Rs. Legs have one dark femoral ring basad of the darkened apex. Knobs of halteres are uniformly brownish black.
Limonia (Metalimnobia) immatura (Osten Sacken) [^Top]
Flies of this species share the same habitats with the previous species. The most visible character used to separate it from Limonia cinctipes is their femora banded with three brown rings. Details of thoracic color pattern can also be used to separate these two species. There are two flight periods for both species with one in May/June and one in September/October.
Limonia (Metalimnobia) novaeangliae Alexander [^Top]
Adult flies of this species are about 8-10 mm in size and yellowish brown in color. Their wings have three brown areas in Cell R, with additional paler brown marginal and submarginal clouds. The femora are brown, the tips dark brown preceded by a clear yellow ring. This species has two generations in our area with peaks in June and September.
Limonia (Metalimnobia) triocellata (Osten Sacken) [^Top]
Flies of this species share the same habitats with many other species in this group. Adult flies are about 8-12 mm in size. The mesonotum is polished yellow, the black praescutal stripes broken into spots by having the intermediate potions obsolete. The wings have restricted brown areas, additional to the ocelli, including a seam along cord and marginal clouds at ends of veins. There are two flight periods for this species with one in May/June and one in September/October.
Other related species of Limonia (Metalimnobia): [^Top]
Flies of the subgenus Rhipidia have bipectinate, unipectinate or subpectinate antennae. This species is about 7-10 mm in size. Their wings have a series of about five major grayish brown spots along costal margin, pleural with single narrow stripe. Male antennae are distinct bipectinate and female antennae unipectinate. Two generations were recorded in our area in June/July and September.
This species is largely southern in distribution but occasionally collected in Pennsylvania. Its range reaches Texas, Florida and the Neotropical region. The adult of this species has subpectinate antennae in both sexes and is about 5 -6 mm in size. Their antennae are dark in color with segments 12 and 13 abruptly light yellow, and they have two narrow blackish longitudinal stripes on the pleural sides of the thorax. The larval stages occur in algae covered surfaces in wet rock outcropping or rocks along streambed.
This species has
a wide present range from .
Limonia (Rhipidia) fidelis (Osten Sacken) [^Top]
This species is resemble to L. bryanti morphologically, except the dark series of brown areas on wing start beyond origin of Rs only, including large rounded clouds at origin and fork of Rs, stigma, and outer radial cells. Thoracic pleura is unstriped. Antennae of male are unipectinate and of female are subpectinate. A early summer species in our area recorded in June and July. Previously recorded from Scotia west to Alberta, south to Oregon, Tennessee, and Florida (Byers,2002).
Limonia (Rhipidia) shannoni (Alexander): [^Top]
This species is rare in our region, collected only once in May. Its present known range is from Maryland west to Illinois, south to Florida and also in neotropical region. The adult flies have subpectinate antennae in both sexes. Wings have small brownish black spots at base, at supernumerary crossvein in cell Sc, origin of Rs, fork of Sc and over R2; all cells with numerous paler dots. Legs are chiefly yellow, femoral tips weakly darkened.
This genus is well represented in our area by a group of small (3-6mm) hairy flies. Unlike the other small hairy flies of the genus Ormosia, the adult flies of the genus Molophilus have their outer cells of wings glabrous without macrotrichia. The adult flies are yellowish-brown to black in color, and could be collected from lush vegetation in shaded bottom-land woods or be found in small dancing swarms. Larvae of this group occur in moist earth near water.
There are about 12 species in our local fauna and some of the common species could be separated based solely on the characters of antennae and male genitalia.
This is the sole species of this genus in eastern United States. The character that separate it from the relate genus Cladura is that the male genitalia has two dististyles. The adult flies of this species are about 4-5 mm in size and very pale yellow or whitish yellow in color, and without brown spots on pleura. They often were found in numerous individuals among herbaceous vegetation and low shrubs. They are on the wing in later summer and autumn. Locally they could be very abundant in dry woodlands. The early stages occur in relatively dry soil in mesophytic woodlands. The image on the bottom right shows clearly the wing venation for this genus.
Ormosia is mainly a group of Holarctic crane flies. The characters that separate it (3-5.5mm) from other small-sized hairy crane flies, especially Molophilus, are that wings of Ormosia have distinct macrotrichia in all the outer cells, and the Sc2 vein is far removed from the tip of Sc1, and Sc1 long, subequal to the length of Rs.
There are about 40 species of this genus found in northeast North America. The chief characters used for separation of many closely related species of Ormosia are also found in the structure of male genitalia. Adult flies of this group also form small dancing swarms in shaded places. The immature stage lives in saturated soil near water.
Species of crane fly in the genus Pedicia are well distinguished by the hairy eyes (see image below), with ommatrichia in between the facets; and Sc long past the fork of Rs (Oosterbroek, 2006 listed as family Pediciidae including other genera with in Tribe Pediciini: Dicranota, Ornithodes, Nasiternella, Ula). The immature are often frequent wet to saturated, organic soil along streams and in seepage areas.
This is one of the most conspicuous and beautiful crane flies in Pennsylvania. It is common and widely distributed throughout the northeastern United States and Canada. The adults are on the wing in June and again in September. Crane flies of this group can be distinguished from all other adult crane flies by the dark brown triangle on the wings. A dark costal margin, a broad seam along vien Cu, and a similar dark seam along the unusually oblique cord form this triangle. The females reach the large size of 35 mm, while the males are slightly smaller. Abdomen is whitish gray in color, the tergites with triangular or diamond-shaped darker gray patches that are bordered by rusty yellow. The adults can be found in moist woods, boggy areas, cold springs, saturated springy hillsides, along streams and shaded tributaries where the aquatic carnivorous larvae develop. Larvae of this species have creeping-welts on abdominal segments 4-7 and live in the edge of cold streams.
Three other species, Pedicia contermina, P. margarita, and P. procteriana are also found in our area. They are greatly similar in morphology and coloration but can be separated by the markings on wings. Also P. contermina and P. procteriana are vernal species, the adults are found only in May and early June.
Pedicia (Pedicia) contermina Walker [^Top]
This species can be separated from other related species by having dark seam along vein Cu not extending distad beyond the approximate level of the cord thus not reach the wing margin. It is a spring species occurring in May and June in our area.
Pedicia (Pedicia) margarita Alexander [^Top]
This species is the smallest species among its related species, the adult flies are about 20-24 mm in body length. The dark seam along vein Cu extended distad byond the level of the cord but only to the outer section of vein Cu1 and not attaining the wing margin.
Pedicia (Pedicia) procteriana Alexander [^Top]
This species is closely related to Pedicia contermina, differing in the wings which has one or two spots of coloration along the dark seam along the cord. This species is on the wing in May and June in our area.
The various local species of Tricyphona are about intermediate in size between the larger sized local species of the subgenus Pedicia and the smaller sized in the genus Dicranota. The adults of this group occur in swampy and boggy areas, along rocky mountain streams, and on the wet faces of vertical cliffs. The larvae are found in wet earth. Adults of Pedicia auripennis are about 15-21 mm in body length. The thorax are yellowish gray with three conspicuous brown stripes. Legs are obscure yellow, femoral tips are narrowly brown. Wings have 3-4 brown spots and a broad brown seams along cord. This species has been observed resting on mossy rock overhang in the bed of a ravine in Upshur County, West Virginia by Stephen Cresswell (June 2007)
Adults of Pedicia autumnalis are about 14-20 mm in body size. Their general body color is pale yellow and their praescutum with three distinct reddish yellow stripes. Antennae have basal segments yellow and terminal ones black. Wings are yellowish subhyaline. Wings in female are small (under 10 mm) and tend to be atrophied. Abdominal tergites are brown, sternites yellow, and terminal segments dark brown. There is one autumn generation occurs from late July through October in our area.
Pedicia (Tricyphona) calcar (Osten Sacken) [^Top]
Pedicia calcar is closed allied to Pedicia autumnalis, mostly readily told by the paler coloration in stigmal area of wings and by the external structures of male genitalia. Adult flies of this species are about 12-19 in body size and female wings are of normal size (over 13mm). P. calcar has also one generation, but unlike P. autumnalis, P. calcar has a spring appearance in the months of May and June in our area.
As with all members of these primitive crane flies, species belonging to the genus Pedicia can be easily distinguished from all the other crane flies by their hairy eyes. Unlike species in subgenus Pedicia, members of the subgenus Tricyphona are medium in size (12-16 mm) and have less patterned wings. Their wings have either a costal darkening area or with spots and clouds on the disk cells. Adults occur in swampy and boggy areas and the aquatic larvae are found in wet earth.
Other related species of Pedicia (Tricyphona): [^Top]
This genus includes a small number of local species. Males of this group have elongate antennae with long and conspicuous verticals on the outer antennal segments. Adults of this species reach 8-9 mm in length and are often found in wet thickets around the swamp, along streams, and in flood plain forests. The adults are usually found standing on leaves of taller shrubs, with wings folded over the back and an elevated stance. Three other species in our area are P. imbecilla, P. quadrata, and P. recondite.
The only species of this genus occur in our area. The adults are small sized (6-7 mm) yellow flies that are commonly found in cool, mixed hardwood woodlands during the spring. Superficially they look like species of Shanonomyia and can be separated only by examining the details of the wing venations. The anterior arculus of the wings are lacking in this species, but are present in Shanonomyia.
This species is common in the grassy edges of swamps, and also in grassy patches along streams. They are also found in lower, densely shaded hillside seepage areas. Adults are often found on the wet ground rather than on plants. Adults reach 7-8 mm in size, they are gray to brownish-gray in color. The larvae are in saturated earth in the same general habitats where frequented by adults. Other common species in our area are P. contempta and P. inornata.
This southern genus has only a single species within the eastern North America faunal limits. The adult flies are pale brownish-yellow in color with relatively long antennae. Their wings are yellow with vague clouds along cord and outer end of cell 1st M2. They reach about 6-8 mm in size. Adult flies are usually found on vegetation in open shaded areas or grassy patches near water.
Teucholabis is a mainly southern genus with the majority of its species occurring in the tropics. There is a single species in eastern North America. Adult flies of this species reach 6-7 mm in size and their thorax is usually highly polished. The males of this genus also have a curious pocket of setae on the seventh abdominal sternite. This species is common and local in swamp woods in early summer when the water level begins to drop and tree roots and forest litter form small bodies of water. Adults were often found resting on saturated soil around this water. The larvae of this species live in decaying wood.
The reduced radial venation and the elongated rostrum readily recognize adult flies of this genus. They also have bifid setae on legs when observed under microscopes. They are about 7-12 mm in size, with 3-4 mm rostrum. They superficially resemble the flies of genus Elephantomyia, but can be easily separated from Elephantomyia by having elongated abdomen that exposed beyond the tips of the wings when at rest. The adult flies are often found rest on low vegetation in woodland areas. The larval habitats remain unknown.
This genus is well distinguished by the hairy eyes and the abundant macrotrichia on the wings. The adults reach 5-7 mm in size and are dark brown in color. The adults were often collected from low-growing shrubs in cold woods and ravines. The immature stages were found in decaying fungi. Two common species are reported in our area. Ula elegans can be separated from Ula paupera by having brown seams along cord and outer end of cell 1st M2 on their wings.
Adults of Ulomorpha were often collected at habitats where species of Pilaria were common. However, Ulomorpha has conspicuous hairy wings and the cell R3 is either sessile or subsessile. The adult flies were often found standing upright on streamside herbaceous vegetation and low shrubs in shaded areas. The immature stages live in rich organic earth in woods. Two species are found in our area. U. rogersella has a polished black body color and U. pilosella has reddish yellow to yellowing brown body color.
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Photos by Chen Young, unless otherwise stated.
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