of Natura
  List of PA Species of Special Concern



Tipula (Arctotipula) williamsiana Alexander is a distinctively large, early spring species.  Although it was originally described from two sites in South Carolina and Tennessee in 1940, there have been no subsequent literature records for this species, in spite of large number of stream surveys throughout Eastern North America in the last 30 years.  Our survey discovered the species in five additional sites, four in Pennsylvania (Adams, Forest, Philadelphia, Westmoreland) and one in West Virginia (Randolph).   This is the only species of the subgenus that has its southern range extended into the United States.  We believe this is a species of special concern due to its few known habitats throughout its range.

Unpolluted spring-fed headwater streams are +++typical habitats for Tipula williamsiana.

Preliminary results from our survey may have indicated that this species has a very limited distribution, unusual habitat requirements or both.  This species has been collected mainly in the vicinity of non-polluted spring-fed headwater streams and does not occur in any of the acid-polluted streams.

Tipula williamsiana laying eggs  Male Tipula williamsian


Emerging adult

Larva of Tipula williamsiana
Photo taken by Jon Gelhaus

















  Last Updated: 07/28/2006
  Page 2005 James W. Fetzner Jr.
  All Photos by Chen Young, unless otherwise stated.
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